8 Developed Countries in Africa

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A developed country is defined as a sovereign state that’s  compared to other nations, and it developed economy and technologically advanced infrastructure.

The Human Development index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development, a long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living .

 It is a standard means of measuring well being. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed, developing, or underdeveloped country, and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life . Countries fall into four broad categories based on their HDI namely the very high, high, medium, and low human development. Currently, Mauritius  is the only African country which falls into the very high human development category.

Every year, the United Nations Development Program releases a report that outlines indices and indicators of human development. The report gives an overview of the state of development worldwide and identifies improvements in nations, including those that are developing or developed. To determine if a country is developed, the United Nations Development Program uses to detect.

Below are top 8 most developed countries in Africa with well-checked human development index 

 

  • Seychelles 

With human development index of(.801)

Seychelles is Africa’s most developed country with an HDI of . 801, just making the “very high human development” threshold. Seychelles is ranked 62 in HDI rankings and has a life expectancy of 73.7 years.

Since independence in 1976, per capita output has expanded to roughly seven times the old near subsistence level. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labour force, compared to agriculture which today employs about 3% of the labour force. Despite the growth of tourism, farming and fishing continue to employ some people, as do industries that process coconuts and vanilla.

Since the worldwide economic crisis 2008, the Seychelles government has prioritised a curbing of the budget deficit , including the containment of social welfare  costs and further privatization  of public enterprises. The government has a pervasive presence in economic activity, with public enterprises active in petroleum product distribution, banking, imports of basic products, telecommunications and a wide range of other businesses. According to the 2013 index of economic freedom , which measures the degree of limited government, market openness, regulatory efficiency, rule of law, and other factors, economic freedom has been increasing each year since 2010.

 

  • Mauritius 

With human development index of (.796)

Mauritius is the only African country to be in the very high category on the human development index . According to the world bank , the country is classified as a high income economy .Mauritius is also ranked as the most competitive, and one of the most developed economies in the African region.

The country is a welfare state . The government provides free education  up through the tertiary level  and free public transportation for students, senior citizens, and the disabled. In 2019, Mauritius was ranked the most peaceful African country by the Global peace index.

Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna.Many species are endemic to the island. The island was the only known home of the dodo, which, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities relatively soon after the island’s settlement.Since independence from Britain in 1968, Mauritius has developed from a low-income, agriculture based economy to a high income  diversified economy, based on tourism , textiles, sugar, and financial services. The economic history of Mauritius since independence has been called “the Mauritian Miracle” and the “success of Africa” 

In recent years, information and communication technology, seafood, hospitality and property development, healthcare, renewable energy, and education and training have emerged as important sectors, attracting substantial investment from both local and foreign investors

 

  • Algeria 

With human development index of  (.759)

Algeria, whose economy is reliant on petroleum, has been an OPEC member since 1969. Its crude oil production stands at around 1.1 million barrels/day, but it is also a major gas producer and exporter, with important links to Europe. Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings.

 Algeria has the 10th largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth largest gas exporter . The U.S. Energy information administration  reported that in 2005, Algeria had 4.5 trillion cubic meters (160×1012 cu ft) of proven natural gas resource. It also ranks 16th in oil reserves .

Non hydrocarbon growth for 2011 was projected at 5%. To cope with social demands, the authorities raised expenditure, especially on basic food support, employment creation, support for SMEs, and higher salaries. High hydrocarbon prices have improved the current account and the already large international reserves position.

Income from oil and gas rose in 2011 as a result of continuing high oil prices, though the trend in production volume is downwards.

 Production from the oil and gas sector in terms of volume, continues to decline, dropping from 43.2 million tonnes to 32 million tonnes between 2007 and 2011. Nevertheless, the sector accounted for 98% of the total volume of exports in 2011, against 48% in 1962, and 70% of budgetary receipts, or US$71.4 billion.

 

  • Tunisia 

With human development index of (.739)

Ranked the most competitive economy in Africa by the world economic forum in 2009;Tunisia is an export oriented country in the process of liberalizing and privatizing an economy that, while averaging 5% GDP growth since the early 1990s, has suffered from corruption benefiting politically connected elites.

Tunisia’s Penal Code criminalizes several forms of corruption, including active and passive bribery, abuse of office, extortion and conflicts of interest, but the anti-corruption framework is not effectively enforced.

However, according to the corruption perception index published annually by Transparency international , Tunisia was ranked the least corrupt North African country in 2016, with a score of 41. 

Tunisia has a diverse economy, ranging from agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and petroleum products, to tourism , which accounted for 7% of the total GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009.In 2008 it had an economy of US$41 billion in nominal terms, and $82 billion in PPP.

The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%, and services 62.8%. The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. Although Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment especially among youth

 

  • Botswana 

With human development index of (.728)

Since independence, Botswana has had one of the fastest growth rates in per capita income in the world.Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to an upper middle-income country. GDP per capita grew from $1,344 in 1950 to $15,015 in 2016.

 Although Botswana was resource abundant, a good institutional framework allowed the country to reinvest resource income in order to generate stable future income.m By one estimate, it has the fourth highest gross National income at purchasing power parity in Africa, giving it a standard of living around that of Mexico.

The ministry of trade and industry of Botswana is responsible for promoting business development throughout the country. According to the international monetary fund , economic growth averaged over 9% per year from 1966 to 1999. Botswana has a high level of economic freedom compared to other African countries. The government has maintained a sound fiscal policy , despite consecutive budget deficit  in 2002 and 2003, and a negligible level of foreign debt . It earned the highest sovereign credit rating  in Africa and has stockpiled foreign exchange reserves (over $7 billion in 2005/2006) amounting to almost two and a half years of current imports

 

  • Libya 

With human development index of (.708)

The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector , which account for over half of GDP and 97% of exports.Libya holds the largest proven oil reserves in Africa and is an important contributor to the global supply of light, sweet crude .During 2010, when oil averaged at $80 a barrel, oil production accounted for 54% of GDP. Apart from petroleum, the other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum.The international monetary fund  estimated Libya’s real GDP growth at 122% in 2012 and 16.7% in 2013, after a 60% plunge in 2011.

The world bank  defines Libya as an ‘Upper Middle Income Economy’, along with only seven other African countries. Substantial revenues from the energy sector, coupled with a small population, give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa. This allowed the Libyan Arab jamahiriya state to provide an extensive level of social security , particularly in the fields of housing and education

 

  • Gabon

With human development index of (.702)

The economy is highly dependent on extraction, but primary materials are abundant. Before the discovery of oil, logging was the pillar of the Gabonese economy. 

Today, logging and manganese mining are the next most important income generators. Recent explorations suggest the presence of the world’s largest unexploited iron ore deposit. For many who live in rural areas without access to employment opportunity in extractive industries, remittances from family members in urban areas or subsistence activities provide income.

 

  • South Africa 

World bank research shows that South Africa has one of the widest gaps between per capita GDP versus its human development index (HDI) ranking, with only Botswana showing a larger gap

The South African agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual laborers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation. Due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.

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